¿Qué es un trabajo académico?

En este vídeo, realizado por la Biblioteca de la Universidad de Jaén y locutado por Ana Isabel Baltar Gómez, jefa de la sección de acceso al documento y producción científica, se explicará el concepto de “trabajo académico” y el canon a seguir a la hora de redactarlo. Además, se hará mención a la investigación y documentación como paso previo a la redacción del trabajo.


Transcripciones: ESPAÑOL ENGLISH

Transcripción Español

Buenos días, ya vamos a empezar de lleno con el módulo 1. El módulo uno es el que dedicamos, como recordáis, a trabajos académicos. La parte primera, vamos a definir qué es un trabajo académico para situarnos, para saber de qué estamos hablando. Mirad, quiero empezar los módulos siempre con una frase y he elegido para empezar esta, una frase que es casi una fantasmada, una ironía, de Robert Day. Robert Day es un escritor, yo llamo siempre a este tipo de trabajos manuales de autoayuda para la investigación, que tiene un libro muy recurrente y recurrido. CÓMO ESCRIBIR Y PUBLICAR TRABAJOS CIENTÍFICOS, tenéis el enlace a la edición que está en libre. Y fijaos en la frase, dice: “escribir bien un trabajo científico no es una cuestión de vida o muerte; es algo mucho más serio.”

Empezando por ahí pues vamos a empezar con nuestra elaboración y nuestra definición de trabajo académico. Y todo son dudas, desde el principio, todo son preguntas; no sé para qué escribo, no sé si el esfuerzo que voy a hacer merece la pena, no sé si el tema se lo merece, no sé lo que tengo que decir, no sé a quién se lo tengo que decir, no sé qué deseo comunicar, no sé para quién escribo y tampoco sé cuál es el formato adecuado. Todo son preguntas. Vamos a empezar, puesto que ya hemos dicho que el trabajo académico se consideraba, o lo considerábamos, una iniciación a la investigación, por definir con la DRAE, el diccionario de la Real Academia, lo que significa investigar, la definición de investigar. Fijaos dice: “realizar actividades intelectuales, con la mente, y experimentales de modo sistemático”, es decir aplicando un método, “con el propósito de aumentar los conocimientos sobre una determinada materia”, ojo, no cualquier conocimiento. En la investigación existe un proceso también para el conocimiento que pasa desde el conocer al conocimiento y al conocimiento científico,el conocimiento científico es el que construye explicaciones acerca de la realidad, esa que conocemos, pero utilizando métodos que tienen que ver y que están basados en la lógica; estableciendo leyes, estableciendo teorías...

Mirad, la palabra método es una palabra clave en la investigación y es una palabra clave en los trabajos académicos. El método es el que marca la distinción. La diferencia entre un trabajo de redacción, de creación... y un trabajo académico, un trabajo de investigación, es el método, el método científico. Método como camino a seguir hacia la resolución de un problema, de un problema planteado, que pasa por una serie de etapas, es un proceso que está estructurado. Os he puesto un esquema muy simple, lo podéis complicar muchísimo más, pero la idea es esta: en el método científico hay un punto primero de observación de la realidad, hay un punto segundo en el que te planteas un problema, un tercer punto en el que adelantas una hipótesis, es decir, una resolución al problema, después hay un diseño experimental de comprobación, un análisis de resultados, si te vale lo que has avanzado en la hipótesis llegas a la conclusión si no te vale retroalimentas para atrás y vuelves a reformular la hipótesis. Pues con esto vamos a saber y vamos a definir y vamos a centrarnos en lo que es un trabajo académico.

Fijaos, es una definición que se da en CI2 y lo define así, me gusta mucho porque lo pilla todo, se puede entender perfectamente; fijaos dice: “un trabajo académico es el resultado de una investigación”. Eso es lo que hemos estado viendo hasta ahora. Y ahora os dice lo que significa eso, dice: “por ello demuestra capacidades”. Demuestra “la capacidad de investigar”, la capacidad de construir un discurso estructurado, profundo, lógico... Y además demuestra la capacidad de presentar, pero no de cualquier manera, presentar demostrando interés, presentar persuadiendo. Y ahora pone un punto y dice: “debe redactarse aplicando unas normas”.

Para hacer un esquema de un trabajo académico, de un trabajo científico, hay muchos formatos. Uno de ellos el formato IMRYD, es el que responde a lo que hemos estado viendo un poquito de la metodología del trabajo del método científico. Fijaos, IMRYD son las iniciales de introducción, material y método, resultados y discusión. Nos planteamos en la introducción cuál es el problema, cómo se estudió el problema, qué se encontró, y por último, qué pueden interpretarse o cómo pueden interpretarse estos resultados. El formato IMRYD.

Os recomendamos una serie de pasos, que los vamos a ver, y un consejo, no te saltes ninguno, si quieres tener éxito no te saltes ninguno. El primero es la formulación del tema, el segundo, ¿os acordáis? Una investigación documentada, documentar el tema. El tercero, encontrar información, evaluar los resultados y por último, el cinco es comunicar, comunicar a los dos niveles; comunicar a nivel de escritura y comunicar a nivel de presentación oral. Y una perspectiva ética que tiene que estar en todo el proceso de la vida académica.

Cuando hablamos de escribir no nos referimos sólo al acto físico de ponernos a escribir, todo no es escribir. Fijaos en lo que os hemos colocado aquí, hay un antes, un durante y un después de la escritura. El antes, que ocupa casi un 50 por ciento, está en identificación, en buscar y organizar la información, en estructurar el documento, por lo menos el borrador... El 25% para el durante, establecer los principios de estilo, de lenguaje, de ortografía, de formato... y el después otro 25% tan importante como es revisar lo que hemos escrito.

En la presentación, en la fase oral, nada se improvisa, todo se planifica. Os hemos colocado un guion de cine donde queda absolutamente todo anotado, lo veremos después. No hay nada improvisado, todo está planificado.

Hemos hecho una nube de etiquetas con uno de estos programitas que hay en la red y fijaos; investigación, sistemática, comunicación, método, organización, estructura... son las palabras clave con las que vamos a terminar este módulo de los trabajos académicos.


Transcripciones: ESPAÑOL ENGLISH

English Transcription

Good morning! It's my pleasure to welcome you to ALFIN 02. You have just finished ALFIN 01 and you have had a brief overview of the services and different areas of the library. From now on you will know that there's life beyond the counter. In ALFIN 02 we are going to deal with an initiation to academic work from a perspective of ethics, from a perspective of academic honesty.

Let me introduce myself so that you know who I am. My name is Ana Baltar. I'm in charge of databases and the scientific production at the library, on the second floor at the end of the corridor.

In this introduction we'll see things you already know. You've already been given the definition of information literacy in ALFIN 01. I do want you to take notice of the competences we will deal with in this ALFIN 02, which are 1, 5, 6 and 7: understanding the need for information, knowing how to work with the results and exploit them, understanding the need for ethics throughout the use of information and knowing how to communicate and share your results.

Now we move onto a different concept, from ALFIN (Information Literacy) to the concept of Ci2, the concept of Computer and Informational Skills. Look, here you have some strange acronyms, namely CRUE and TIC. CRUE is the Conference of Spanish Universities' Rectors and TIC is related to Information and Communication Technologies, together with REBIUN, which is the Network of Spanish Universities' Libraries. Well, Ci2, Computer and Informational Skills, has a part that addresses us directly.

Look, here you have a link to the skills that are part of degree studies and look at how informational competencies are defined: the effective use and communication of information in an ethical, legal way, in order to build knowledge. With this we finish this shor introduction and we fully enter into the introduction to our subject, to our ALFIN 02: the academic works.

Well, as I said, we are going to start with the modules we have devised for this part and the sessions that we have proposed for the part of academic works (ALFIN 02). Let's make a little, but necessary, introduction. At this point in your time at university, you have surely already done some kind of academic work. Academic works are something truly essential in the development and transfer of knowledge. We need, therefore, to know the keys to this "academic genre" (between inverted commas) and become familiar with its two sides: the side of writing and the side of presentation. And, of course, everything done from the guiding principle of academic integrity, of information ethics. It is not something that we are inventing ourselves. In the legislation, both in the LAU, and in the University of Jaén statutes, look what is said: (the University of Jaén statutes) "the University of Jaén will provide its public service function through research, teaching and study." The teaching and study part is something you have experienced since Primary education – during the entire Primary School, shortly followed by High School. The new part in higher education is research.

Look, what we are doing is building a university as a research, teaching and study place for the transfer of knowledge. All this has been boosted since the establishment of the Bologna Process. The Bologna Process introduces a new subject, the TFG (Trabajo Fin de Grado), the Undergraduate Degree Final Project. In the Undergraduate Degree Final Project the student has to demonstrate, in order to complete his university training, the skills he has acquired throughout his passing through the degree. It allows, in some way, to approach, at least to a minimum, to the rigors of research work. The norms state that it must include an oral exposition, which tests a student's ability to successfully explain his research with a presentation in front of a public.

Look, here you have the regulations of the Undergraduate Degree Final Project of the University of Jaén, which reflects all this we have seen. The previous idea, with all that we have said, should be clear by now: academic works at university are a training in research, a training in the preparation of documents which reflect the outcome of an investigation.

Look, here on this slide there is a parallellism between research work and academic work. It begins with an investigator, a research group, or it begins with an individual student or a working group. What the research group produces is a scientific article. What produces the work group is an academic work. In both of them there is a written report. The scientific article gets published in a journal so that it's positioned and visible, that is the success of the article. An academic work is presented and defended and it's success is measured with an evaluation mark. In both cases there is a private part and a part that is offered to the public. In the case of an academic work there is a written part and an oral part.

I want you to notice one thing, because you don't quite seem to understand it well. You don't understand (at least that's what you have told us) why a working group has to be established randomly... Well, working groups are a reflection of what a research group is and the management of the working group is so important that, if it's done badly, it doesn't produce, it doesn't have the final result of an academic work.

Look at what UNESCO says about a research article, it says: "the essential aim of a scientific article is to communicate the results of some research." And, in addition, it adds, "in a clear, concise and faithful way". An article that is poorly written can sink a good investigation. And a good investigation must never lead us to a bad article. We have to know the form, the format, the style and the genre. That's why we talk about genre: the academic genre, which is the form intellectual production takes in a higher education institution. Not everything goes, especially if it's something written or presented carelessly. This is so important that we have to know the keys to this genre. It couldn't be otherwise.

The library of the University of Jaén, facing something as important as academic works, offers a host of resources about this topic on it's website. Notice that in the tag cloud, "academic works" appears. The box on the left shows "Support for scientific production" because we decided to place it there. Academic works act as a supportive element for scientific production. Therefore, if you click on "support for scientific production", you will find a first part of documentary media and the specific part in the website devoted to academic works as a form of initiation to research. What we find on that page, apart from the introduction where the regulations that affect us and we have to know about the University of Jaén are located, well, there's a selection of resources at different levels: resources at the level of information searching, resources at the level of information evaluation, resources at the level of writing and quoting in an academic work, also resources when presenting and resources with regard to plagiarism, That big problem: anti-honesty, anti-integrity.

As it could not be otherwise, the catalog of the library of the University of Jaén offers a book section with the title: "How to write and present", okay? If you search, you will find a lot of books and reports that can help you to articulate and elaborate an academic work and, also, they can give you the key or the guidelines to be successful in your presentation.

The BujaBlog, as you may now, is the blog that the library has to reach you, students; the library's news blog. If you notice, in the BujaBlog there is a cloud of tags. They get bigger the more they are used. Note that the label "academic papers" is biggest because it has been used a lot of times. Well, just remember that you also have resources in the BujaBlog on academic works.

I want to finish this introduction part by saying: (and emphasizing what we have already seen) academic works are a basic task; basic and essential for the university student. You will be required to do some. And they will help you prepare your Undergraduate Degree Final Project and, if you keep studying, your PhD thesis or your Master's Degree Final Project. Well, let's see how we have structured this ALFIN 02.

Look, we are going to see academic works from two perspectives: the first is the one that we have devoted to the writing and presentation (formats, styles, quotes...); the second is the one that we have devoted to the ethics of the information at two levels: copyright and the ethical aspects of scientific publications. We'll also deal with academic honesty and the social responsibility that we have with open publications. The module is structured as follows: Module 1, academic papers. Module 2, Ethics of Information.

We are going to follow a series of chapters, in both the first and the second module. You have them on the slide: from what a job is, how to delimit the object of study, how to document, to when the style counts, quoting and doing the presentation, all that in the first part, the part of academic works. In the part of information ethics we will talk about copyright, we'll see the opposite of "right", i.e. plagiarism, and we'll deal with open publications, too.

Well, welcome again and thank you very much. Let's start with Module 1 "Academic Works".